Also, rate of epenthesis increased with Loanword phonology and Phonological Inventory — Sereer wiki — Linguistics Phonological Inventory. There are also many loanwords from other European languages, including English, FrenchGermanand Italian.
In an OT account, I show that the same set of markedness constraints account for all these repair strategies, but additional constraints are needed as each of the strategies occurs at different strata in the grammar. Terms used among Nikkei descendants include oba-chan "grandma" ; onee-san, onee-chan, onii-san, and onii-chan; toasts and salutations such as kampai and banzai; and some honorific suffixes of address such as chan, kun, sama, san, and senpai.
Large loanword corpora in Shona, Sranan, Samoan and Kinyarwanda are analyzed statistically, and the patterns are modeled in a version of Optimality Theory which introduces constraints on autosegmental representations.
Some words have popular usage while others are known for a specific context in specific circles. While it is commonly assumed that languages epenthesize context-free default vowels, this book shows that in loanword adaptation, several strategies are found which interact intricately. Written and spoken languages[ edit ] The written language taught in Brazilian schools has historically been based by law on the standard of Portugal, and until the 19th century, Portuguese writers often were regarded as models by some Brazilian authors and university professors.
French has contributed to Portuguese words for foods, furniture, and luxurious fabrics, as well as for various abstract concepts. Formal writing[ edit ] The written Brazilian standard differs from the European one to about the same extent that written American English differs from written British English.
In spreading, feature markedness plays an important role alongside sonority. While different languages prefer different strategies, these strategies are subject to the same set of constraints, however.
Word-final vowel epenthesis The relationship between the perception of non-native phonotactics and loanword adaptation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Date Issued: In addition, there is a limited set of vocabulary from Japanese.
French has contributed to Portuguese words for foods, furniture, and luxurious fabrics, as well as for various abstract concepts.
A significant number of beer brands in Brazil are named after German culture-bound concepts and place names due the fact that the brewing process was brought by German immigrants.
However, this aspiration to unity was severely weakened in the 20th century by nationalist movements in literature and the artswhich awakened in many Brazilians a desire for a national style uninfluenced by the standards of Portugal.
The analysis of additional languages allows for solid typological generalizations. In all languages analyzed, default epenthesis exists alongside vowel harmony and spreading from adjacent consonants.
In addition, a diachronic study of epenthesis in Sranan provides insight into how insertion patterns develop historically. Department of Linguistics and Philosophy. Brazilian Portuguese tends to adopt French suffixes as in aterrissagem Fr.
Formal writing[ edit ] The written Brazilian standard differs from the European one to about the same extent that written American English differs from written British English. Portuguese has borrowed a large number of words from English.
I argue that this is because the epenthetic vowel insertion where there is an intensity rise makes a perceptually less salient change from the original cluster than epenthesis where there is no intensity rise, based on the P-map hypothesis Steriade, that an output involving a perceptually smaller change is more optimal.
Brazilian Portuguese tends to adopt French suffixes as in aterrissagem Fr.
Written and spoken languages[ edit ] The written language taught in Brazilian schools has historically been based by law on the standard of Portugal, and until the 19th century, Portuguese writers often were regarded as models by some Brazilian authors and university professors.
Later, agreements were reached to preserve at least an orthographic unity throughout the Portuguese-speaking world, including the African and Asian variants of the language which are typically more similar to EP, due to a Portuguese presence lasting into the second half of the 20th century.
In Brazil, these are especially related to the following fields note that some of these words are used in other Portuguese-speaking countries: This dissertation concerns cluster-dependent asymmetries in vowel epenthesis in loanword adaptation and in non-native cluster perception.
Crucially, it will be shown that the novel generalization about vowel epenthesis sites and the results of perception experiments employing phonetically diverse stimuli can be best explained by the auditory properties, and not by the sonority profile, which has traditionally been used to explain these data.
It will be argued that the cluster-dependent asymmetries in epenthesis sites are best explained by the auditory properties of consonant clusters, such as intensity rise.
In addition, a diachronic study of epenthesis in Sranan provides insight into how insertion patterns develop historically. Sesotho calls for additional constraints on directionality on its spreading pattern. Representational and phonetic considerations Yvan Rose a,Vowel epenthesis in loanword phonology.
We suggest universal markedness scales which combine with constraints on autosegmental configurations to model the patterns found in individual languages and at the same time to constrain the range of possible crosslinguistic variation.
Vowel epenthesis in loanword adaptation: Representational and phonetic considerations Yvan Rosea,*, Katherine Demuth1,b aDepartment of Linguistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St.
John’s, Nﬂd, Canada A1B 3A1 bDepartment of Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences, Brown University, BoxProvidence, RIUSA Received 12 December ; received in revised form 21 June Vowel Epenthesis in Loanword Adaptation 3 Expansion rules: vowel or consonant epenthesis A third group of rules in which recognizable phonetic factors cause predictable allomorphic variation are the expansion or epenthesis rules.
Epenthesis (epi + en "in" + thesis "placing").
inventories cause for loanword adaptation. Although Bemba employs repair strategies such as vowel epenthesis and consonant deletions among others to adapt loanwords, this study will limit itself to consonant preservation and consonant substitutions only.
Keywords. I think Jen Smith, who comes here from time to time, argued that Japanese native phonology favors deletion given a consonant cluster, but prefers epenthesis for loanword adaptation.
Her proposal was, I think, that orthography provides explicit cues to the presence of a consonant. for the various facts about epenthesis as a strategy in loanword adaptation. Three main issues will be dealt with here: constraints for vowel epenthesis vs.
deletion. In work on loanword adaptations, cases of vowel copy in epenthesis have been explained as a result of the spreading of phonological features from the preceding vowel onto the epenthetic vowel (i.e., vowel harmony), for instance, in Shona, Sranan, and Samoan (Uffmann, Uffmann, C.
().Vowel epenthesis in loanword adaptation